Java vs C# – 10 Key Differences between Java and C#

Java vs C# - 10 Key Differences between Java and C#

What is Java?

Java was released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was developed by James Gosling. It is a general-purpose programming language which was designed with a specific goal of allowing developers to write once run anywhere. Java application is compiled into bytecode that can run on any implementation of the Java Virtual Machine or JVM.

In this tutorial, you will learn more about:

What is C#

C# is an object-oriented programming language, developed by Microsoft that runs on.Net Framework.

The name “C sharp” was inspired by musical notations. Here ‘#’ symbol indicates that the written note must be made a semitone which is higher in pitch.

History of Java

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The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a big failure. However, in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the language to take the benefit of the expanding World Wide Web development business.

14 years later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of two of their products Java and Solaris.

History of C#

Anders Hejlsberg is the key contributor to C# language development. In 1999, he built a team to develop a new language which was then called “Cool.”. The project was approved and announced in July 2000 at the.Net Developers Conference. The language was later renamed as C#.

Characteristic of Java

  • A multi-platform, object-oriented, network-centric, programming language
  • Java can run on almost any computer platform Network-centric
  • It is designed for building object-oriented online applications.
  • It helps you to integrate object-oriented programming model.

Characteristics of C#

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Here, is the list of few important characteristics of C# programming language:

  • Support for automatic Garbage Collection
  • Offers Standard Library
  • Assembly Versioning
  • Conditional Compilation
  • Simple Multithreading
  • Lambda and LINQ Expressions
  • Integration with Windows

Java vs. C#

CreationDesigned by Sun Microsystems.Designed as part of Microsoft’s .NET initiative.
EcosystemHas a huge opensource ecosystem.Used to develop software for Microsoft platforms.
Support for genericsIt is implemented using erasures and casts added upon compilation into bytecode.Integrated into the CLI and allows type information to be available at runtime
Support for delegatesRequires use of an interface to achieve similar functionality.Has delegates which serve as methods that can be called without knowledge of target object.
Checked exceptionsOnly has one type of exceptionDistinguishes between checked and unchecked exceptions
PolymorphismInvokes the “virtual” keyword in a base class and “override” keyword in a derived class.Enables polymorphism by default.
Designed forJava programming language is intended to be run on a Java platform, by the help of Java Runtime Environment (JRE).The C# programming language is designed to be run on the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
Safety typeJava type safety is safe.C# type of safety is unsafe.
Built-in DatatypeBuilt-in data types that are passed by value are called simple types.Built-in data types that are passed by value are known as primitive types.
ArraysArrays in Java are a direct specialization of Object.Arrays in C# are a specialization of System.
Support for conditional compilation.Java doesn’t provide support for conditional compilationC# supports conditional compilation feature with the help of preprocessor directives.
Support for Goto statement.Java doesn’t support the goto statement.C# supports the goto statement.
Structure and unionsJava doesn’t support structures and unions.C# supports structures and unions.
Suited forFor concurrency and complex project.It is mainly suited for game app development projects.
InstallationRequires JDK to run Java..Net framework provides a vast library of codes used by C#
Cross-platform supportJava is highly cross-platform with its byte code.Compared to Java, C# need to improve on this feature.
IDEEclipse, NetBeans, IntelliJ IDEAVisual Studio, MonoDevelop
Operator OverloadingNo support for operator overloadingC# provides support for operator overloading for multiple operators.
Number of Public ClassesIn Java, there is an only a single public class inside source code, or it will display compilation error.In C#, there are multiple public classes included in the source code.
Control for APIIt is controlled by an open community process.Microsoft controls C# API.
Runtime EnvironmentJava supports JVM(Java Virtual Machine).C# supports CLR(Common Language Runtime).
Platform DependencyJava is a robust and platform independent language.Code written in C# is windows specific.
PointersJava does not support pointers.In C# you can use pointer only in an unsafe mode.
Floating pointJava supports strctfp keyword that means it results for a floating point will be the same for different platform.C# does not offer support for strictfp keyword. This means that the result of floating point numbers may not be guaranteed to be the same across all platforms.
TIOBE Index16
Famous companies usingAirbnb, Instagram, Spotify, Netflix, etc.Stack Exchange, Microsoft, Coderus, Docplanner, etc.
Salary RangeThe average salary earned by Java Developer is $102,633 per year in the United States.The average salary for “C# sharp developer” is approximately $108,145 per year.

Advantages of Using Java

Here, are pros/benefits of using Java-

  • Detailed Documentation is available.
  • The large pool of skilled developers available
  • Allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
  • It is a multi-threaded environment which allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
  • Excellent performance
  • Huge array of 3rd party libraries
  • Easy to navigate libraries

Advantages of Using C#

Here, are pros/benefits for using C#

  • Offers proper lambda and generics support
  • Backed by Microsoft Corporation
  • Language Integrated Query (LINQ)
  • Easy extension methods
  • Automatic garbage collection
  • Properties with getting/set methods
  • Automated memory management
  • Best in class cross-platform support
  • Backward Compatibility

Disadvantages of Using Java

Here, are cons for using Java-

  • JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
  • Java has high memory and processing requirements. Therefore hardware cost increases.
  • No support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
  • You don’t have any control over garbage collection as Java does not provide functions like delete(), free().

Disadvantages of Using C#

Here, are the cons of using C#

  • Poor x-platform GUI
  • C# is an internal part of the .NET framework so the server running the application must be windows based.
  • It is proprietary, so you need to spend upfront cost to purchase the software
  • C# is less flexible as it mostly depends on the .Net framework.
  • C# runs slowly, and the program needs to be compiled each time when any changes are made.

C# vs. Java – Which is best for you?

As per your requirement and usage, you can select any language between Java or C#. However, Java is a highly secure and feature-rich programming language which is known for its platform compatibility and robustness. On the other hand, C# is an object-oriented language which is mostly used by the .Net programmers.


  • Java runs on the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) whereas C# is designed to be run on the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
  • Java is a class-based Object Oriented language whereas C# is Object-Oriented, functional, strong typing, component-oriented.
  • Java doesn’t support for operator overloading whereas C# provides operator overloading for multiple operators.
  • Java does not support pointers while C# supports pointer only in an unsafe mode.
  • In Java, Arrays are a direct specialization of Object whereas arrays in C# are a specialization of System.